Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a promising alternative for the prevention of enteric gliadin absorption, the predisposing factor of celiac disease (CD). IgY antibody was produced from the egg yolk of Single Comb White Leghorn chickens during the immunization period for the development of an oral immunotherapeutic agent. Here, we report the potential use of spray dried IgY antibody formulation using sugar protectants (mannitol, sorbitol, or microcrystalline cellulose powder (MCCP)). The long-term stability of the spray dried egg yolk powder formulated with 37.5% mannitol (EYP-M) preserved IgY antibody activity at 99.9%, which was significantly higher than that with other protectants (p < 0.05). In a dissolution test, the EYP-M shows 82.4% IgY activity after 2 h in simulated gastric fluid (SGF). A competitive ELISA at 50% inhibition (IC(50)) shows that 1.6 mg/mL EYP-M bound to 7.6 mg/mL and 10.5 mg/mL gliadin in SGF without and with food matrix conditions, respectively, whereas in simulated intestinal fluid, the formulation bound to 10 mg/mL gliadin, regardless of a food matrix. In-vivo study: BALB/c mice fed with EYP-M and gliadin at a ratio of 1:5 (w/w) demonstrated that gliadin absorption in the gastrointestinal tract was minimal at <1%. Thus, EYP-M containing IgY antibody may be used in CD patients to eliminate the effects of ingested toxic gliadin.