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Identification of IgF, a hinge-region-containing Ig class, and IgD in Xenopus tropicalis.

Posted by on in 2006
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Zhao Y, Pan-Hammarström Q, Yu S, Wertz N, Zhang X, Li N, Butler JE, Hammarström L.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Aug 8;103(32):12087-92. Epub 2006 Jul 28.
State Key Laboratory for AgroBiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, People's Republic of China.

Only three Ig isotypes, IgM, IgX, and IgY, were previously known in amphibians. Here, we describe a heavy-chain isotype in Xenopus tropicalis, IgF (encoded by C(phi)), with only two constant region domains. IgF is similar to amphibian IgY in sequence, but the gene contains a hinge exon, making it the earliest example, in evolution, of an Ig isotype with a separately encoded genetic hinge. We also characterized a gene for the heavy chain of IgD, located immediately 3' of C(mu), that shares features with the C(delta) gene in fish and mammals. The latter gene contains eight constant-region-encoding exons and, unlike the chimeric splicing of muC(H)1 onto the IgD heavy chain in teleost fish, it is expressed as a unique IgD heavy chain. The IgH locus of X. tropicalis shows a 5' V(H)-D(H)-J(H)-C(mu)-C(delta)-C(chi)-C(upsilon)-C(phi) 3' organization, suggesting that the mammalian and amphibian Ig heavy-chain loci share a common ancestor.

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