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Confronting the Neglected Problem of Snake Bite Envenoming: The Need for a Global Partnership

Posted by on in 2006
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 José María Gutiérrez,* R. David G Theakston, and David A Warrell

PLoS Med. 2006 June; 3(6): e150. Published online 2006 June 6. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030150.

Copyright : © 2006 Gutiérrez et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Competing Interests: Vicerrectoría de Investigación, Universidad de Costa Rica had no role in the preparation of this article. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
José María Gutiérrez is at the Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. R. David G. Theakston is at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom. David A. Warrell is at the Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:
See "Bioinformatics and Multiepitope DNA Immunization to Design Rational Snake Antivenom" on page e184.
See "Snakebite: Sociocultural Anthropological Bias" on page e412. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Envenoming resulting from snake bites is an important public health hazard in many regions, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries [ 1-3].

Although antivenoms are being produced by various laboratories in every continent, the burden of snake bite envenoming-causing both morbidity and mortality-still has a great impact on the population and on health-care systems, especially in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and Latin America [ 4].

Unfortunately, public health authorities, nationally and internationally, have given little attention to this problem, relegating snake bite envenoming to the category of a major neglected disease of the 21st century.

Keywords: Class switch, Evolution, Avian, Interleukin initiation region.

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